1/13/13 Mali in US War for African Continent

This issue shows how the US war for Africa, intensified under the Obama regime, has been executed in myriad ways and lies called 'news' in Mali specifically and other African nations.
It includes 3 general categories that overlap in realtime:
*US major media 'public diplomacy'; *USAID/Soros 'civil society' in Africa; * chronology links

Intro:
GEOPOLITICAL/ STRATEGIC CONTEXT: AFRICAN CONTINENT ESSENTIAL TO U.S. GLOBAL DOMINATION AGENDA
North African nation of Mali
In 1960 the Mali Federation became the nation of Mali
www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/ml.htm
Mali's location is a lynchpin in US African/MiddleEast (MENA) wars: it borders Algeria, Mauritania, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Senegal and the Inner Niger Delta is located in central Mali in the semi-arid Sahelian zone, just south of the Sahara Desert.....with important natural resources, gold, uranium, bauxites, iron, manganese, tin, copper and northern Mali has 'recently been found' rich in oil, suggesting a US attempt to engineer an 'independent' North & South Mali - as with newly created South Sudan - imposing another geographic restructuring since Mali was Western Sudan until 1960, and/or another devastating IMF 'development' restructuring.
Mali and this region is critical in US need to defeat its major capitalist rival, China, to salvage its rapidly dissipating global supremacy.

The US in the Niger Delta is a major, very related, story ... very brief detour then back to Mali

Obama Invites Acting Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan to U.S.
4/5/10 http://april7rally.wordpress.com/2010/04/05/obama-invites-nigerian-presi...

“Sanogo’s only merit is getting two-thirds of his country (Mali) occupied” Niger’s foreign minister told Voice of America
http://www.tamtaminfo.com/index.php/politique/8295-mohamed-bazoum-a-la-v...

AFRICOM'S Next Front : Lagos Dissents Under IMF Hegemony Nigeria:
1/5/12 http://engforum.pravda.ru/index.php?/topic/244745-the-imf-and-us-african...
The Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Christine Lagarde, on a recent trip to West Africa, met with Nigerian President, Goodluck Johnathan in December 2011 and the governments of Guinea, Cameroon, Ghana and Chad to drive home new IMF Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) directives.
[How IMF-World Bank and Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) Destroy Africa ]
The United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania conducted a series of African war game scenarios in preparation for the Pentagon’s expansion of AFRICOM under the Obama Administration. In the presence of US State Department Officials, employees from The Rand Corporation and Israeli military personnel, a military exercise was undertaken which tested how AFRICOM would respond to a disintegrating Nigeria on the verge of collapse amidst civil war. The scenario envisioned rebel factions vying for control of the Niger Delta oil fields (the source of one of America’s top oil imports), which would potentially be secured by some 20,000 U.S.led troops if a US-friendly coup failed to take place. At a House Armed Services Committee press conference March 13, 2008, AFRICOM Commander, General William Ward, stated that the issue of growing US dependence on African oil would be furthered by AFRICOM operating under the principle theatre-goal of "combating terrorism". February 18, 2008 at an AFRICOM Conference held at Fort McNair, Vice Admiral Robert T. Moeller declared the guiding principle of AFRICOM was to protect "the free flow of natural resources from Africa to the global market", before citing China’s increasing presence in the region as challenging US interests.

US-African 'partnership'
U.S. Bilateral Relations with Nigeria
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5474.htm

U.S. expands secret intelligence operations in Africa
6/13/12 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-expands-secret-...
The surveillance flights have taken on added importance in the turbulent aftermath of a March coup in Mali. U.S. spy planes fly hundreds of miles north to Mali, Mauritania and the Sahara, searching for fighters from al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
The surveillance is overseen by U.S. Special Operations forces but relies heavily on private military contractors and support from African troops.
The mission underscores how Special Operations forces, which have played an outsize role in the Obama administration’s national security strategy, are working clandestinely all over the globe, not just in war zones training foreign security forces and performing aid missions, also include teams dedicated to tracking and killing suspected terrorists

1/14/13 NYT Hollande, Long Seen as Soft, Shifts Image With Firm Stance
1/14/13 VOA Islamist Rebels enter Diabaly, 400 kilometers north of capital, as UN security council prepares to meet escalating conflict
1/14/13 NYT 'paper of record' makes a convoluted attempt (including the usual calculated confusion with use of islamist/insurgents/ rebels/ extremists and Tuaregs) to rewrite another failure of US 'smart power' and make US proxy wars fit obama's 'wars winding down' pledge

French Strikes in Mali Supplant Caution of U.S.
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/14/world/africa/french-jets-strike-deep-i...
BAMAKO, Mali — French fighter jets struck deep inside Islamist strongholds in northern Mali on Sunday, shoving aside months of international hesitation about storming the region after every other effort by the United States and its allies to thwart the extremists had failed. For years, the United States tried to stem the spread of Islamic militancy in the region by conducting its most ambitious counterterrorism program ever across these vast, turbulent stretches of the Sahara. ... But as insurgents swept through the desert last year, commanders of this nation’s elite army units, the fruit of years of careful American training, defected when they were needed most — taking troops, guns, trucks and their newfound skills to the enemy in the heat of battle, according to senior Malian military officials...Then American-trained Capt. Amadou Sanogo, led the overthrew Mali’s elected government, setting the stage for more than half of the country to fall into the hands of Islamic extremists...After the coup, Islamic extremists elbowed out the Tuaregs in northern Mali and enforced a harsh brand of Islam...The same US-trained units seen as the best hope of repelling such an advance proved, in the end, to be a linchpin in the country’s military defeat. The leaders of these elite units were Tuaregs ...who were overrunning northern Mali...
Some Defense Department officials, notably Pentagon Joint Special Operations Command officers, pushed for a lethal campaign to kill senior operatives of two of the extremists groups holding northern Mali, Ansar Dine and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb...But with attention and resources so focused on other conflicts like Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia and Libya, the Obama administration rejected such strikes in favor of a more cautious strategy: helping African nations repel and contain the threat on their own.
Over four years the US spent about $600 million to combat Islamist militancy in the region without fighting the kind of wars it waged in the Middle East. The program stretched from Morocco to Nigeria. US officials heralded the Malian military as an exemplary partner, US Special Forces trained its troops in... counterterrorism skills. “I was sorely disappointed a military with whom we had a training relationship participated in the military overthrow of an elected government,” Gen. Carter F. Ham, head of USAFRICOM said in a speech at Brown University last month . US spy planes and surveillance drones tried to make sense out of the mess, but US officials and their allies are still scrambling to get a detailed picture of who they are up against. Now, in the face of longstanding US warnings a western assault on the Islamist stronghold could rally jihadists worldwide prompting terrorist attacks as far as Europe.... With thousands of French citizens in Mali, its former colony, France decided it could not wait any longer, striking the militants at the front line and deep within their haven.

China's New Leadership and Sino-Africa Relations
Jan. 2013 http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2013/01/foresight-africa-china...
Chapter from 2013 Foresight Africa full report, http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2013/01/foresight-africa-2013# which details the top priorities for Africa in the coming year.
Africa starts 2013 with hope and optimism. Africa has dropped its mantle as a “doomed continent” and has weathered several global economic crises fairly well. Today, the continent is a land of opportunity for Africans and international investors. Many now see an “emerging Africa” because of the positive changes that have taken place and continue to take place across the continent...
China’s strategies in Africa may not change dramatically in 2013; however, African governments may have an evolving view of China’s sometimes unequal partnership. Many Africans hope China’s new leaders will shift China’s priority from short-term resource exploitation to a more long-term sustain able development model. At the same time, albeit in small numbers, some African politicians and civil society organizations have begun to be more vocal in their opposition to China’s resource-centric approach toward the continent.

US NGO 'CIVIL SOCIETY' SELLS US 'SMART POWER' BY PROMOTING SOFT POWER 'HUMANITARIAN AID & DEVELOPMENT' AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO USNATO MILITARY POWER
Regional Director for Africa - Open Society Institute
2009-11-06, Issue 456
http://pambazuka.org/en/category/jobs/60047
Please email resume and cover letter with salary requirements before December 4, 2009 to: humanresources@sorosny.org Include job code in subject line: RD-Africa OR TO
Open Society Institute Human Resources – Code RD-Africa 400 West 59th Street New York, New York 10019 FAX: 212.548.4675 No phone calls, please

Open Society Institute in 1984 start to help countries make the transition from communism. OSI has expanded the Soros Foundations network to encompass the US and more than 100 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The Regional Director provides strategic guidance and leadership on initiatives for Africa... the Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA), the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA), and the Open Society Initiative for East Africa (OSIEA), the OSI national foundation in South Africa... and responsibility for other OSI programs and entities... The Africa Regional Director reports to the Director of International Operations. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/jobs/60047

Pambazuka - Africa: Program Manager... liaison and manager of USAID-funded Africa Liaison Program Initiative (ALPI) ALPI.. to enhance collaborative relationships
http://pambazuka.org/en/category/jobs/19777

Countries benefiting from the USAID programme through contracts between ECOWAS and other regional NGOs and public/private alliances include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.
http://www.pambazuka.org/aumonitor/comments/376/

(USAID/West Africa) based in Accra, Ghana, signed three agreements with ECOWAS to support activities in trade, health and conflict mitigation. ...
www.pambazuka.org/aumonitor/comments/376/

AU Monitor was established to provide regular feedback to African civil society organisations (CSOs) on the African Union...
Horace Campbell is professor of African American Studies and Political Science at Syracuse University.

Dismantle AFRICOM! Does General Carter Ham make the case?
12/13/12 Professor Horace Campbell, http://pambazuka.org/aumonitor/
December 8, 2012 General Carter Ham, Commander of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) spoke at the 2012 Achebe Colloquium and Africa at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. The thrust of his presentation was the role of AFRICOM in relation to the Colloquium theme: Governance, Peace and Security in Africa... General Ham has been giving public lectures raising the alarm about the rise of the threats of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb for the last few weeks...
Resist AFRICOM differed significantly from researchers at Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) where new resources for the study of Africa were being deployed. Abdi Samatar and Jeremy Keenan have written on the militarization of the Horn of Africa and the Maghreb. Kennan’s work was most direct stating that the Western forces and their allies were fabricating terrorism in North Africa in order to prop up repressive governments....
DEVELOPING PARTNERSHIPS WITH AFRICANS
General Carter Ham concluded his presentation by justifying the mission to advance US security interests across Africa... drew from official US government statements, especially the updated US National Security Strategy in Africa spelt out by the White House on June 14, 2012 signed by Barack Obama stating that the United States will partner with sub-Saharan African countries to pursue four interdependent and mutually reinforcing objectives:
(1) strengthen democratic institutions; (2) spur economic growth, trade and investment; (3) advance peace and security; and (4) promote opportunity and development.
General Ham repeated these objectives and stated that stability and security were necessary preconditions for others to take hold....
The January 2012 Defense Strategic Guidance, the second document Ham referred to, provided guidelines for the military... the challenging ‘development’ issues in Africa and how Africans were seeking to bring the military under civilian control.... where the military was respectful of human rights....underlined that the work of the United States Africa Command was ‘partnership’ ...
“... If we look at US spending in Africa -- military is dwarfed; most US spending is in health, education and agriculture. That reflects our values. We invest in human capital.” These last words in the mind of this author were the clearest argument for the dismantling of AFRICOM and this author said so to the general. If the United States and its government were serious about investment in human capital, then the present dominance of the military over aid and education ventures would be reversed...General Carter Ham sought to use the space of a scholarly platform to justify the need for the existence of the US Africa Command. Instead the content of his message provided some of the clearest reasons why the war on terror has passed the tipping point.

RECENT PAST HISTORY LEADING TO THE PRESENT
Tuareg Take Up Arms
June 2006, Jeremy Keenan, Review of African Political Economy, http://www.roape.org/108/
May 23 Several dozen Tuareg, led by Hassan Vaghagha (Fagaga), leader of the Mouvement National pour la Libération de l'Azawad, attacked two army bases at Kidal (NE Mali) and at Menaka near the Niger border. The Kidal bases were quickly overrun, with most of the 400 garrisoned troops reported fleeing - in spite of much-publicised US training of the Malian army.

US Silence as Sahara Military Base Gathers Dust
Sept. 2007 Jeremy Keenan, http://www.roape.org/113/
After almost four years of raucous propaganda and disinformation from Washington on its fabricated ‘War on Terror’ in the Sahara, the last five months have been characterised by a stony silence. This is for two reasons. One is that the widespread anger and political instability generated by the US intervention in the Sahel, notably Niger and Mali, has led finally, as predicted, to an expanding regional conflagration. Tuareg rebellions in Niger and Mali escalating across northern Niger and NE Mali is immensely embarrassing for Washington which since 2003, it has been busy marking this region (see EUCOM's maps of Africa) an Islamist (Salafiste) ‘Terror Zone’. Countless US-inspired media articles describe the Niger-Mali-Algeria border zones region as ‘Al-Qaeda terrorist bases locale lurking deep in the Sahara desert’...Yet the region is now entirely immersed in a rebellion reminiscent of anti-colonial days, without a single 'Islamist' in sight.

How US does business via UN, African proxies and 'al qaeda'
State-Dept. funded International Military Education and Training program reveals extent of US soft- hard power merger and the extent of 'strategic information' propaganda
Mali military coup leader trained in U.S.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/leader-of-mali-mil...
The coup came a month before Mali — one of the few established democracies in the region — was to hold a presidential election. Mali coup leaders pledged a return to democracy and said they insurgency. A U.S. defense official said Friday that the leader of the military coup that deposed President Amadou Toumani Toure for his incompetence combating the Tuareg, received military training in the US on “several” occasions. Capt. Amadou Haya Sanogo, who led a military faction that deposed Mali’s democratically elected president, visited the US several times to receive professional military education, including basic officer training, said Patrick Barnes, a U.S. Africa Command [AFRICOM] official in Washington...he could not provide further details about the duration or nature of Sanogo’s participation in the State Dept. funded International Military Education and Training program. whose foreign officers are generally selected by U.S. Embassy officials. The State Department condemned the coup and called for restoration of democratic rule...[but] has not suspended aid or diplomatic relations with the country....“The actions of the mutineers run contrary to everything taught in U.S. military schools, where students are exposed to American concepts of the role of a military in a free society,” said Hilary F. Renner, a spokeswoman for the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs...State Department spokeswoman Victoria Nuland told reporters the U.S. government will be required by law to suspend military relations with Mali because of the coup. J.Peter Pham, African affairs specialist at the Atlantic Council Washington think tank said “It would be hard to find an officer at [Sanego's] rank or higher in the Malian military who hasn’t received training. They’ve been a pretty reliable partner in terms of counterterrorism training.” In appearances on African television since the coup Thursday, Sanogo stated he had received U.S. military and intelligence training but did not reveal details.
Mali...is a key U.S. counterterrorism partner containing al-Qaeda affiliate in North Africa. The U.S. government has bolstered Malian security forces for years...AFRICOM's planned major regional military exercise in Mali last month was canceled because of Mali’s struggle to contain a Tuareg insurgency in the northern part of the country. The exercise, Flintlock 2012, was supposed to join security forces from West Africa, Europe and the US to coordinate counterterrorism missions.

US Trains for Counterterrorism Missions in Mali
http://crossedcrocodiles.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/mali-10-gao-spops.j...
2006 US Special Forces worked with the Tuareg and Algerians to destabilize Mali. Now in 2009 the US is backing Mali’s current government against the Tuareg
The New York Times tells more about Sanogo’s US education 2004-2012, including at Fort Benning’s Coup School:
Mali and the United States have had close military ties in recent years as part of American counterterrorism programs. According to the State Department, Captain Sanogo attended an English-language instructor course at the Defense Language Institute, a special school for international military students at Lackland Air Force Base, Tex., from August 2004 to February 2005. Nearly three years later, in December 2007, Captain Sanogo returned to the United States, this time for more English language classes at Lackland before attending the Army’s entry-level course for intelligence officers at Fort Huachuca, Ariz., instruction that he completed in July 2008. Finally, Captain Sanogo attended the Army’s prestigious infantry officer basic training course at Fort Benning, Ga from August 2010 to December 2010.
Stars and Stripes gives more detail on the ongoing train and equip activities with Mali: Leader of Mali coup received officer training from AFRICOM under U.S.-funded International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs, confirmed by the Africa Command (AFRICOM) and the State Department...
The Special Operations Command – Africa SEAL team spent weeks in Mali working with a Malian special operations unit on advanced counter-terrorism training....to build on previously established relationships and help African partner nations... These capacity-development events support the regional interagency objectives of the U.S. State Department’s Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership program and the Department of Defense’s Operation Enduring Freedom (Trans-Sahara)...

U.S. old reliable 'al qaeda' cipher works again
Islamists advance in Mali as France vows intervention
1/11/13 http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/node/1418003
1/11/13 http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jan/11/france-vows-help-after-m...
Islamist rebels are advancing into territory held by the Malian government and appear to have taken the central town of Konna, . Carter Ham, commander of the U.S. Africa Command, described it as a crisis...A regional military intervention to take back Mali from al-Qaida-linked Islamists was not likely before September, but the advance by al-Qaida linked forces creates pressure for earlier military intervention... J. Peter Pham, director of the Africa program at the Washington-based Atlantic CouncilKonna said Konna...has strategic value as “the last big thing...on the road to Mopti” ...The U.N. Security Council condemned the capture of Konna and called on U.N. member states to provide assistance to Mali “to reduce the threat posed by terrorist organizations and associated groups.”... On the phone with U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta about the Malian crisis.”President Francois Hollande said France, which used to rule Mali as a colony, is ready to help stop the Islamist extremists. A top French diplomat, who spoke on condition of anonymity.. said France is now able to deploy military assets — notably air power — over Mali “very quickly.”... Jan. 11 French French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius confirmed reports France had carried out at least one air strike against the Islamists...The intervention came just as President Hollande announced French troops had joined Mali's routed army in a counteroffensive against Islamist militias. "French armed forces this afternoon provided support to Malian troops to fight against these terrorist elements," Hollande said, noting the French intervention would last "as long as necessary" -- adding the move was also made to protect 6,000 French citizens in the West African country. "The terrorists should know that France will always be there when what's at stake is ... Diplomats privately confirmed the campaign involved troops from Senegal and Nigeria.

propaganda/psychological war preparations
Retooling U.S. Public Diplomacy as a Strategic Instrument...Behind the Offensive Across North Africa & 'Middle East' [MENA]
2/21/11 http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:gslIoyPd48kJ:scholar.google.com/+N...

Secret Presidential Directive Report Identified Potential Uprisings
2/17/11 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/world/middleeast/17diplomacy.html
President Obama ordered his advisers last August to produce a secret report on unrest in the Arab world, which concluded that without sweeping political changes, countries from Bahrain to Yemen were ripe for popular revolt, known as a Presidential Study Directive, the classified report identified likely flashpoints, most notably Egypt, and solicited proposals for how the U.S. could push for political change in countries with autocratic rulers who are valuable U.S. allies...how to balance American strategic interests and avert broader instability ... weekly White House meetings held with experts from State Department, the C.I.A. and other agencies...led by Dennis Ross, senior Middle East adviser; Samantha Power, a National Security Council senior director handling human rights issues; and Gayle Smith, senior director for global development [ed: Special Assistant to the President and National Security Council ]...By issuing a presidential directive, Mr. Obama pulled the topic of political change out of regular meetings on relations with Arab states.

TUAREG RISING IN MALI
http://libya360.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/tuareg-rising-in-mali/
Muammar Gadaffi even after his death last year remains central to the Tuareg insurgency in Mali and the fragile peace in the northern Sahel region of the country.... The Tuareg-led National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (NMLA) vowed in the 60's to liberate Azawad (North Mali) from Malian occupation

AFRICOM'S Next Front: Lagos Dissents Under IMF Hegemony Nigeria:
1/5/12 http://engforum.pravda.ru/index.php?/topic/244745-the-imf-and-us-african...
The Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Christine Lagarde, on a recent trip to West Africa, met with Nigerian President, Goodluck Johnathan in December 2011 and the governments of Guinea, Cameroon, Ghana and Chad to drive home new IMF Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) directives.
[How IMF-World Bank and Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) Destroy Africa ]

The United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania conducted a series of African war game scenarios in preparation for the Pentagon’s expansion of AFRICOM under the Obama Administration. In the presence of US State Department Officials, employees from The Rand Corporation and Israeli military personnel, a military exercise was undertaken which tested how AFRICOM would respond to a disintegrating Nigeria on the verge of collapse amidst civil war. The scenario envisioned rebel factions vying for control of the Niger Delta oil fields (the source of one of America’s top oil imports), which would potentially be secured by some 20,000 U.S.led troops if a US-friendly coup failed to take place. At a House Armed Services Committee press conference March 13, 2008, AFRICOM Commander, General William Ward, stated that the issue of growing US dependence on African oil would be furthered by AFRICOM operating under the principle theatre-goal of "combating terrorism". February 18, 2008 at an AFRICOM Conference held at Fort McNair, Vice Admiral Robert T. Moeller declared the guiding principle of AFRICOM was to protect "the free flow of natural resources from Africa to the global market", before citing China’s increasing presence in the region as challenging US interests.

... "Client military government seem to be the US preferred form of governance for African countries..."
3/22/12 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/renegade-soldiers-seize-contr...

US State Dept. funded International Military Education and Training program reveals extent of US soft & hard power merger and 'strategic information'
Mali military coup leader trained in U.S.
3/23/12 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/leader-of-mali-mil...
The coup comes a month before Mali — one of the few established democracies in the region — was to hold a presidential election. Mali coup leaders pledged a return to democracy and said they deposed President Amadou Toumani Toure because of his incompetence in combating the Tuareg insurgency. A U.S. defense official said Friday that the leader of the military coup Thursday received military training in the United States on “several” occasions. Capt. Amadou Haya Sanogo, who led a renegade military faction that deposed Mali’s democratically elected president, visited the US several times to receive professional military education, including basic officer training, said Patrick Barnes, a U.S. Africa Command [AFRICOM] official in Washington...he could not provide further details about the duration or nature of Sanogo’s participation in the International Military Education and Training program. The State Department funds that program, and foreign officers are generally selected by U.S. Embassy officials. The State Department condemned the coup and called for restoration of democratic rule...[but] has not suspended aid or diplomatic relations with the impoverished country....“The actions of the mutineers run contrary to everything taught in U.S. military schools, where students are exposed to American concepts of the role of a military in a free society,” said Hilary F. Renner, a spokeswoman for the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs. “If this situation is not resolved democratically, the remaining aid could be very seriously affected” State Department spokeswoman Victoria Nuland told reporters Friday. By law, the U.S. government will be required to suspend military relations with Mali because of the coup.

Mali...is a key U.S. counterterrorism partner in efforts to contain al-Qaeda’s affiliate in North Africa. The U.S. government has bolstered Malian security forces for years...
AFRICOM's planned major regional military exercise in Mali last monthwas canceled because of Mali’s struggle to contain a Tuareg insurgency in the northern part of the country. The exercise, called Flintlock 2012, was supposed to bring together security forces from West Africa, Europe and the United States to coordinate counterterrorism missions.
J. Peter Pham, African affairs specialist at the Atlantic Council Washington think tank said “It would be hard to find an officer at his rank or higher in the Malian military who hasn’t received training,” Pham said. “They’ve been a pretty reliable partner in terms of counterterrorism training.” In appearances on African television since the coup Thursday, Sanogo stated that he received U.S. military and intelligence training but did not reveal details.

Mali Tuareg declare independence
4/6/12 http://www.worldcrunch.com/malis-tuareg-rebels-declare-independence/defa...
(AP) Bamako - "We, the people of the Azawad," said the statement published on their website, "proclaim the irrevocable independence of the state of the Azawad starting from this day, Friday, April 6, 2012. My brothers, the great Tuareg tribes of Libya and Africa, you elected the deceased Mu’ammer Qadhafi as your Leader. Your Leader was killed…We know that the Tuareg of Libya, Algeria, Western Sahara, Mali and Niger will avenge his death. Your actions will determine the fate and future of the mercenaries and colonizers...."
Military chiefs of 13 of Mali's [ECOWAS] neighbors met in Ivory Coast to hash out plans for a military intervention to restore constitutional rule in the capital in the south, and push back the rebels in the north. France said it is willing to offer logistical support for the operation.

Malawi's President Mutharika Dead
4/6/12 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/06/us-malawi-president-idUSBRE835...
(REUTERS) Lilongwe - President Mutharika was rushed to hospital in Lilongwe Thursday after collapsing but was dead on arrival sources said. State media said he had been flown to South Africa for treatment although his immediate whereabouts remained unclear. Medical sources said the former World Bank economist had been flown out because a power and energy crisis in the nation of 13 million was so severe the Lilongwe state hospital would have been unable to carry out a proper autopsy or even keep his body refrigerated.

Clinton Answers China's Challenge in Africa
8/1/12 http://www.voanews.com/content/clinton-answers-chinas-challenge-in-afric...
U.S. Secretary of State Clinton told leaders in Senegal’s capital, Dakar, the first stop on11-day Africa tour ...the unabashed theme to make sure African leaders know the difference between deals with the US or China...that Africa’s best hope for prosperity lies with democratic institutions and open markets... a daunting challenge to China’s increasing influence on the continent.

"islamists" as scapegoats and saviors: US/EU will foot the bill and 'reconquer the region' using Africans to conquer Africa for US imperialist domination
'WAR TO RETAKE NORTH MALI INEVITABLE'
10/24/12 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/war-in-mali-inevitable-as...
US said a war to reconquer the region had become "inevitable"...US Defence Secretary Leon Panetta yesterday refused to rule out Washington support for training or other operations on the ground. The attack that killed the US ambassador in Libya's Benghazi has been linked to AQIM but no evidence has been produced
The UN Security Council authorised a military intervention in Mali and given its West African neighbours – in the regional bloc Ecowas – a deadline of late November to come up with a detailed plan of re-conquest for the vast, sparsely populated north. The likely outcome is an African-led force paid for by Western governments – similar to that used to battle Somali Islamists al-Shabaab....France's president François Hollande, just returned from an African tour, warned that terrorists must not be allowed to install themselves in the Sahel region. "It's not just an aggression against the sovereign country of Mali. It's a major issue for the security of the entire continent – and Europe." Tough talk from Western capitals prompted militants in northern Mali to warn they would "open the doors of hell" on French citizens in the event of intervention....
The Islamists hijacked an uprising earlier this year by ethnic Tuareg fighters, the MNLA, who drove out the Malian army and briefly declared independence for the north. They were quickly pushed out by the better-armed and organised Islamist groups, including AQIM who have since been accused of widespread human rights abuses and cultural crimes such as the destruction of ancient sites in the fabled city of Timbuktu.
Any response to the crisis has been complicated by the coup which preceded the northern uprising. Despite repeated deadlines, the military junta in the south – which ousted an elected leader – remains in effective control of the government. The conflict has caused about a third of the population in the north of the country flee and worsened the already appalling hunger in the Sahel region - a belt of land spanning nearly a dozen of the world's poorest countries on the southern rim of the Sahara - where millions are on the brink of starvation....

US 'al qaida linked islamist groups', with the help of US installed Mali chief Sanago, temporarily overthrew the Tuareg National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (NMLA)
Al Qaida-linked groups cement control in northern Mali as diplomats ponder intervention
10/31/12 http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/10/31/173211/al-qaida-linked-groups-ceme...
...U.S. efforts now focus on regional diplomacy, expected to end eventually in a military intervention...Neighboring African states would provide the manpower, the West, intelligence and guidance...similar to an offensive launched to counter al Qaida’s affiliate in Somalia. U.S. diplomats and military officials are buzzing to and from West African and European capitals, trying to finalize an intervention plan. The West African bloc of nations, ECOWAS, has said it is willing to contribute an intervention force, backed by the African Union, supported financially and logistically by the U.S. and its allies...U.S. Secretary of State Clinton met with officials in neighboring Algeria in hopes of winning support for some kind of action. Clinton described Mali as a hub from which "terrorists are seeking to extend their reach and their networks in multiple directions.”...speaking on the sidelines of the U.N. General Assembly last month.

Pentagon planning multinational military operation in Mali
12/6/12 http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/pentagon-planning-...
U.S. military planners have begun to help organize a multinational proxy force to intervene next year in Mali, the famine-stricken, coup-wracked African country that has become a magnet for Islamist extremists, U.S. officials said Wednesday.The international force would be led on the ground by several thousand Malian and West African troops but would receive extensive support from the Pentagon and the State Department, which would help train, equip and transport the troops, Obama administration officials said...As U.S. ambassador, Mary Beth Leonard has the authority to approve or reject the presence of U.S. personnel and programs in the country...
Mali's democratically elected president was ousted by a coup in March led by Capt. Amadou Sanogo...who received training in the US...and disaffected military officers who said president Amadou Toumani Toure had not dealt effectively with the Islamist rebellion in the north. The Pentagon had to withdraw Special Forces troops, trainers and military aid....
The rupture in military relations also hampered U.S. efforts to obtain intelligence about al-Qaeda fighters who found a haven in northern Mali. The U.S. operated surveillance flights over Mali for years... to monitor the movements of Islamist extremists...in a classified program, code-named Creek Sand, based in next-door Burkina Faso, whose aircraft are operated by U.S. contractors who do not wear military uniforms and can effectively work undercover...The surveillance flights have continued in other countries... Some relocated to Niger...
The Pentagon can still operate high-altitude surveillance flights over Mali using P-3 spy planes and unarmed Global Hawk drones... based in Europe... that must travel much longer distances...[and] also require overflight permission, granted only on a case-by-case basis, from other countries in the region, such as Algeria...“That’s a pretty significant impediment, and we’ve got to figure our way through that,” Army Gen. Carter F. Ham, the commander of U.S. forces in Africa, said Monday during a lecture at George Washington University....
A military operation in Mali, however, will inevitably be messy and unpredictable. The chronic instability in the country, one of the world’s poorest, riven by tribal divisions and corruption, has rapidly worsened since Islamist extremists took control of northern Mali.. Some independent analysts questioned whether the administration’s strategy could backfire, embroiling the US in an intractable local conflict...the Pentagon’s deputy assistant secretary for Africa said... no U.S. ground troops would enter Mali, but would not rule out a possibility of the Pentagon contributing U.S. warplanes to transport African troops and provide them with aerial cover....

Clinton woos reluctant Algeria on Mali intervention
10/29/12 Leela Jacinto http://www.france24.com/en/20121029-mali-algeria-clinton-woos-reluctant-...
In a bid to win Algerian support for a planned military intervention in northern Mali, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met with Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika in Algiers Monday.amid questions whether the regional powerhouse would play a spoiler role in a planned military intervention in northern Mali...
The current crisis in Mali was sparked by a March 22 military coup that ousted the West African nation’s democratically elected leader, creating a power vacuum that enabled Tuareg rebels to seize control of northern Mali only to lose it to a motley mix of Islamist groups – including militants linked to al Qaeda’s North African branch. Clinton’s visit came just over three months after her French counterpart, Laurent Fabius, made an official trip to Algeria, where the Malian crisis topped the agenda. French President François Hollande is also expected there in December. The high-level stops in Algiers highlight the mounting international offensive to win Algeria’s backing for an UN-approved plan for an African-led military intervention in northern Mali. “Algeria is probably the most important actor in the region,” said Riccardo Fabiani, North Africa analyst for the New York-based [ed: Soros] Eurasia Group. “Clinton’s visit shows that US and France are working toward the same goal to ensure Algeria is on the same plane and not actively or passively boycotting or throwing obstacles in the process.”
A long, complex history in a difficult region
The wealthiest country in the region, Algeria also has the best equipped and most battle-tested military in the Sahel transition belt between the Sahara desert and the African savannah that straddles the borders of Algeria, Mauritania, Mali and Niger....In the past, Algeria played a critical role mediating peace deals between Tuareg separatist fighters in northern Mali and the Malian government based in Bamako, in the south. Its intervention in the Tuareg rebellions over the past few decades was often aimed as a counterweight to the regional ambitions of former Libyan strongman Muammar Gaddafi....But following the 2011 Arab uprisings, Algeria has been deeply sceptical of military meddling in the region. Algiers opposed the NATO campaign in Libya and it has warned against a hastily conceived and executed military intervention in Mali. "Algeria’s position is very clear: they want to avoid the possibility of military intervention and they don’t want foreign troops in the region,” said Fabiani....
US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta (said) the US had to “ensure al Qaeda has no place to hide and we have to continue to go after them.”... the West African regional bloc ECOWAS has until November 26 to clarify its plans for northern Mali. The military intervention is expected to involve around 3,000 West African troops aided by France with the US in a support and advisory capacity. Algeria was initially opposed to any military intervention, calling for dialogue in a bid to reach a political solution to the crisis. But following Clinton’s visit, US officials traveling with the Secretary of State indicated that Algeria has been "warming to the idea" of intervention led by West African states. It is unlikely Algerian troops will take part in any military operation. But if Algeria did agree to provide intelligence – if not boots on the ground – it would be an important development in the latest bid for U.S. military intervention in northern Mali.

AFRICOM Commander Gen. Carter F. Ham Warns of Al Qaeda Influence in Mali
12/4/12 https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/04/world/africa/top-american-commander-i...
...A spokesperson for the Malian government, said on Tuesday authorities require the Tuareg NMLA "to solemnly and formally renounce their aims of independence and self-determination"... The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) said it is ready to deploy 3,300 troops with UN approval which is expected to decide sometime next month...A coup in March plunged the once stable west African democracy into turmoil, allowing a long-running separatist movement in the north to take advantage and secure huge swathes of territory....

US splintered the Tuareg National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (NMLAor MNLA) to create 'moderate' Tuareg groups that could be allied with 'islamists' and 'al qaeda'
US, Algeria See Moderate Tuaregs as Key to Ending Mali Partition
10/30/12 http://blogs.voanews.com/state-department-news/2012/10/30/us-algeria-see...
Extremist rebels have taken control of much of northern Mali since March and allied with the Tuareg people of the region. U.S. Secretary of State Clinton was in Algeria this week seeking support for a West African force to help Mali’s military regain control of the north. And her talks with President Abdelaziz Bouteflika were dominated by the issue of how to deal with the terrorists and Islamic fundamentalists who took control of more than two-thirds of Mali after a coup toppled the government in Bamako last March.
The best chance for breaking the extremists’ hold on northern Mali may be persuading the region’s moderate Tuareg people to reconcile with the military-controlled South of the country.

Mali separatists, Islamist group make pledges in talks aimed at avoiding military operation
12/4/12 AP http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/mali-separatists-islamist-gro...
OUAGADOUGOU, Burkina Faso —Tuareg rebels agreed to stop pursuing a separate state in Mali’s north, while one of the extremist Islamist groups in the area pledged to reject extremism and terrorism, according to a statement released Tuesday by various groups. The concessions came during talks with Mali’s government suggesting progress in the effort to avoid a US-backed military intervention. But it’s unclear whether all the rebel factions in northern Mali — Islamist or ethnic Tuareg — will unite behind these pledges made during the one-day session. Al-Qaida’s North African branch in Mali was not at the table. The statement did not mention whether the Mali government made any promises or concessions of its own...
Mali, formerly a poor but stable nation, was thrown into turmoil after a March coup by disgruntled soldiers who toppled the country’s democratically elected leader. A mix of rebel groups took advantage of the power vacuum to seize a territory the size of France in the north. The separatist National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, or NMLA, initially had the upper hand, and planted its flag on government buildings announcing the creation of a new Tuareg country. But a few months later NMLA was chased out by three al-Qaida-linked Islamist groups which now control the north, including Ansar Dine, or “Defenders of the Faith.” Two other groups entrenched in the north were not represented at the talks: the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, or MUJAO, and al-Qaida’s North African branch, called al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb....The crisis in Mali led to calls for an African-led intervention with Western support though no Western troops are expected to be deployed. The African Union approved a military plan calling for 3,300 African troops to be deployed to take back northern Mali.... now with at the UN for vetting.