“This is a test case for democracy not only in Burkina Faso but across Africa”, Ambassador Johnnie Carson, former U.S. assistant secretary of state for African Affairs, now senior adviser to the president of the U.S. Institute of Peace,
“...a new world order—post-World War II, post-Soviet Union implosion—being built...Tyranny, terrorism, challenges and threats to our country...is going to be with us. It’s a reality....”
2/18/08 Vice Admiral Robert T. Moeller at the AFRICOM Conference said AFRICOM'S guiding principle is protecting “the free flow of natural resources from Africa to the global market”, citing China’s increasing presence in the region as challenging American interests.
STATE DEPT. & AFRICOM: the new U.S. military command for Africa, working closely with the State Department to employ “the three D’s” – defense, diplomacy and development – to help African nations stabilize themselves...."
3/28/12 Jeffrey Gettleman
US National Security geostrategy merges the '3 Ds': Diplomacy, Development, Defense
Sustainability: A Lens for National Security
The US is not autarchic; it depends on foreign trade for approximately 60% of its petroleum supply and 80% of its most strategically important minerals (manganese, platinum group metals, cobalt and the rare earth elements). 61% of the 18 minerals on which the US is 100% import dependent are produced in China (USGS Mineral Commodity Summary 2011, 6). To sustain its economy and defense capability the United States must have these resources. It is therefore vulnerable to instability or loss of influence in resource producing countries, or
to supply cutoff. Second, the sustainability of the potential systems, economies, resource base and human security of countries essential to U.S. national security objectives is critical.
Africa is a strategically important continent for the US and typifies these levels of resolutio. State and regional stability in Africa is critical to US interests. Instability and failed states put resource access at risk, threatens security of bordering states, and creates the potential to be penetrated... Thus at the national and regional levels, the importance of Africa to US national security is de- fined by sustainability. Examining these security issues through the lens of sustainability can suggest essential policy options for dealing with evolving trends in the international security milieu.
Several key sustainability based trends are affecting the availability and adequacy of global resources in ways that threaten US national security. Population growth is rarely given the recognition it deserves as an element of security. In 1900 there were 1.6 billion people in the world, 99 years later there were 6.1 billion.... Burgeoning populations in the two industrializing giants of China and India are driving their interest in African resources....The resources necessary to meet the growing demand for affluence are increasingly found in Africa, where the Chinese, in particular, have created multiple, multi-billion-dollar bilateral trade relationships with resource rich African countries....The vulnerability of the US and its allies to import supply disruption was critical to the Soviet Union's geopolitical strategy and well known to crafters of China's geopolitical “Go Out” strategy....
Regional instability has been the chief threat to US national security interests since the end of the Cold War. The ability of the US to influence the behavior of regional states essential to protecting US national security objectives....
Former colonial powers, India and China, both understand the importance of regional stability and sustainability as a way to promote their influence with regional states. China, for example, has multiple billion-dollar bilateral development projects with resource rich African states or states and organizations that control the region’s transportation network and economies (Enrich 2011). These relationships are guided by a geopolitical strategy that recognizes the importance of resource access to the Chinese economy and the tenure of the Chinese Communist Party, and
are appealing to regional states because they develop the social and physical infrastructure necessary for government sustainability...
The Cold War vulnerability of U.S. security to a lack of resource access and the failure of strategically important regional states is being rekindled by key trends in the political landscape. Population growth, long highlighted by intelligence community publications...resource geopolitics and environmental security all recognize the importance of sustainability at a strategic level. Integrating the three U.S. elements of power (Defense, Diplomacy and Development) to proactively address sustainability issues as they affect US national security, is essential...
The International Trade Centre (ITC), a joint agency of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN) ...for least developed country (LDC) business to become competitive in global markets, speeding economic development and contributing to achievement of UN Millennium Development Goals
AID For Trade
Western and Central Africa
West Africa is represented by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Central Africa is represented by the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Both regions include least developed countries (LDCs), developing countries, small island developing states and land locked developing countries, implying different challenges...
Given the significant number of LDCs in the two sub-regions, the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) is a key driver of trade related technical assistance. ITC played a critical role in developing and implementing projects under the Integrated Framework (IF), and is completing these projects in a number of countries: Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Sao Tomé and Principe and Sierra Leone. ITC now stands ready to support Tier 2 EIF projects where required to do so....ITC is also engaged in a number of other country level initiatives...
Note: 11/2/14 'ebola west africa' search result: Executive Director's press photos
17 September 2014 www.intracen.org/itc/about/how.../executive-director-s-press-photos/ Radio 5 RNE ITC ED to discuss the economic consequences of Ebola in Africa.
Burkino Army Forces President Campaore Out
...The day after the Army chief Navere Honore Traore claimed power and ordered the dissolution of the government Friday, the second in command of the presidential guard, leader of the young officer's group, Isaac Zida, declared himself in charge of Burkina Faso. In a TV appearance he said for a "smooth democratic transition" he assumed "the responsibilities of head of the state and the transition"..dismissing Traore as "obsolete". Zima has close ties to civil society, appearing publicly with Guy Herve Kam, leader of the Citizen Broom protest group..
DEVELOPPEMENT – ECONOMIE - SCIENCE ECONOMIQUE ...
7 jan 2011; KAM, Guy Hervé ; KAMBIRE, Bruno ; OUADRAOGO, .... COTE : 0690 REX ; ACDI ; WORLD BANQUE INSTITUTE ; USAID
Burkino Faso Military Appoints New Interim Minister
“Lieutenant-colonel Isaac Zida was chosen unanimously, the Army said in a statement, to lead the transition period opened after the departure of President Compaoré”...“The period of transition form and duration to be determined later"...Although Zida, second in command of the presidential guard, could face similar criticism, analysts believe he is more appealing to the younger generation civil society. He appeared before big crowds alongside the lawyer Guy Hervé Kam, leader of Citizen Broom that helped lead the demonstrations. Zida’s appointment may also acknowledge the need to retain the support of the presidential guard, an elite military unit of around 1,500 troops better trained and armed than the conventional national army.
Burkina Faso hosts French special forces and is an important ally of the U.S. and France in the fight against Islamist militants in west Africa. Washington called on Burkina Faso’s military to follow “the constitutionally mandated process for the transfer of power and holding of democratic elections”.
DEAD SILENCE ON BURKINO FASO at 10/31/14 State Department Daily Press Briefing http://ouagadougou.usembassy.gov/
“This is a test case for democracy not only in Burkina Faso but across Africa”, Ambassador Johnnie Carson, former U.S. assistant secretary of state for African Affairs, now senior adviser to the president of the U.S. Institute of Peace *(USIP)
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) was established by Congress in 1984 as a federally-funded * independent national security institution...USIP achieves its mission through its active engagements in the world’s conflict zones, teaching and training, research and analysis, and global grant-making. USIP operates in the world’s most challenging conflict zones, and conducts active programs in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, Sudan, Libya, Burma, and elsewhere...
* By law, the United States Institute of Peace is governed by a bipartisan Board of Directors. The board is composed of twelve members from outside federal service appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate, and four ex-officio members: the secretary of state (who may designate another Senate-confirmed State Department official), the secretary of defense (who may designate another Senate-confirmed Defense Department official), the president of the National Defense University (who may designate the vice president of the National Defense University), and the president of the Institute (nonvoting). The board is prohibited by law from having more than eight voting members of the same political party.
The African Union works with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to help Burkina Faso in the transition process after Compaore stepped down....AU and ECOWAS form part of the African Peace and Security Architecture that aims to restore order and maintain peace and stability in countries facing security challenges.
AFRICA - Human Rights Watch
... At the Inter-African NGO Seminar on Landmines parallel to the June 1998 OAU summit in Ouagadougou... representing Burkina's Minister of Foreign Affairs Ablassé Ouédraogo,
Report On The Founding Conference Of The Liberian Leadership Forum (LLF)
August 28, 2002 http://www.theperspective.org/llfreport.html
REPORT on the (LLF) held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso July 8 to 11, 2002....President Campaore was out of the country attending the OAU/AU Summit in Durban...
Based on the the Abuja Position Statement of March 15, 2002 recommendations for the establishment of a ceasefire between the government and LURD; the deployment of an International Security Stabilization Force (ISSF) to take charge of national security; the disarming, disbanding, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of all rival armed groups; and the creation, by the UN and regional and sub-regional organizations, of mechanisms to address acts of impunity including the establishment of a truth and reconciliation commission, boards of inquiry and special investigation committees to look into grave cases of criminal nature and human rights violations....
Special attention was paid to the leadership of Burkina Faso because of their historical role in the Liberian conflict...consultations between the Burkinabe leaders, former Interim President Dr. Amos Sawyer, and Unity Party Leader Mrs. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf...Leaders of 10 Liberian political parties and 14 civil society organizations...Representatives of the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS and the U.S. International Republican Institute (IRI) were in attendance... conference to be chaired by Dr. Amos C, Sawyer, current professor of political theory and policy analysis at Indiana University at Bloomington, USA and former President of the Interim Government of National Unity...
The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and the ECA/OECD-DAC Mutual Review of Development Effectiveness in the context of NEPAD
United Nations 28 December 2007, http://www.afrimap.org/english/images/report/A-HRC-8-WG.2-TF-CRP5.pdf
This background paper on the African Peer Review Mechanism and on the OECD-UNECA mutual review of development effectiveness in the context of NEPAD was presented by AfriMAP to the the expert task force of the UN Working Group on the Right to Development.
United States African Development Foundation: USADF began programming in Burkina Faso in 2008
APRM: African Peer Review Mechanism
(APRM) commissioned by the Africa Governance Monitoring and Advocacy Project (AfriMAP) of the Open Society Foundations network. The reviews identify challenges that all stakeholders involved in reforming the APRM should be aware of and commit to resolving. The countries covered in this compilation are: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, Rwanda and South Africa. AfriMAP’s aim is to contribute to discussions on the reform and strengthening of the APRM process...
OPEN SOCIETY FOUNDATIONS - Soros Foundation Network ... Africa | Algeria | Benin | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | DR Congo | Ethiopia | Ghana | Guinea ..
The APRM Process in Burkina Faso
AfriMAP and OSIWA 28 March 2009
Launch of AfriMAP report on APRM in Burkina Faso
AfriMAP and OSIWA (Open Society Initiative for West Africa) launched a report on the APRM process in Burkina Faso ...Around 35 people attended the launch event in Ouagadougou, including representatives of the national APRM secretariat in Burkina Faso, political parties, civil society, academia and the media.
Burkina Faso | U.S. Agency for International Development - USAIDOFDA ...supports programs in Burkina Faso and other Sahelian countries .
Sept. 30, 2014 www.usaid.gov/crisis/burkina-faso
THE BORDERLESS STRATEGY: REMOVING TRADE BARRIERS IN WEST AFRICA
To increase trade, private sector stakeholders across West Africa are working together to:
With support from USAID, the WORLD BANK, ECOWAS, UEMOA and the EU, a West African Trade & Transport Observatory will monitor and report transport and trade data,
including port activity, costs and delays, and other important information. The objective is to launch the Observatory by the end of 2015.
2013 BORDERLESS CONFERENCE CONNECTING MARKETS ...
www.borderlesswa.com/ sites/ default/ files/ BA%202013%20Conference%20Report%20Final_0.pdf
USAID West Africa Trade Hub, USAID Business Environments for Agile Markets ( BEAM)...
Regional Ministerial Forum Moderator and key speaker: Ablasse Ouedraogo, Former Deputy of the World Trade Organization
BORDERLESS WEST AFRICA
"Now is the time for Africa to rise to its true place in the global economy..."...
The Borderless Alliance...a 2011 USAID Trade Hub- supported private sector coalition...has grown into the leading advocacy platform for regional integration with more than 55 members representing various regional supply chains, from port authorities and transport organizations to manufacturers and producers....Since last May we have... established seven national Borderless Alliance chapters: Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Ghana, opened Border Information Centres at the Burkina Faso- Ghana and Benin-Nigeria borders...
ECOBANK: "THE FUTURE IS PAN AFRICAN"
African leaders call for permanent Security Council seat for Africa
09-25-2010 09:31 BJ
UNITED NATIONS, Sept. 24 (Xinhua) -- African leaders called on the United Nations to grant the continent a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, declaring that 65 years after its founding the world body remains mired in the legacy of the past. African countries, including Nigeria, Senegal and Gabon, made the statement as the leaders of the three countries were taking the floor at the general debate of the 65th session of the UN General Assembly
"The early reform and, in particular, expansion of the UN Security Council will accord the UN greater effectiveness," Nigerian President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan said, "The exclusion of Africa from the permanent member category of the Security Council can no longer be justified."
Currently, there is no African nation represented in the composition of the permanent five members of the Security Council, though at present, three African nations, namely Gabon, Nigeria and Uganda, are three of 10 non-permanent members in the 15- nation Security Council.
"To maintain at all costs the status quo is to turn one's back on the radical changes in the state of the world and at the same time to expose the Council to more mistrust, more defiance and more criticism," Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade told the General Assembly on the second day of its annual debate, seeking the right of veto for the continent.
Wade noted that from 51 member states in 1945 the UN had grown to 192, yet the Council, "the body intended to reflect the collective will" and whose resolutions are legally binding while those of the Assembly are not, had increased its membership only once, in 1965, from 11 to 15.
"Are we prepared to define a new world order within which Africa and the emerging powers will fully play the role which the changing circumstances confer on them? How indeed can one conceive of a credible role for our organization in world governance while Africa, comprising more than a quarter of its troops and occupying 70 percent of the Council's agenda, has no permanent seat on it?"
2014 AFRICAN NATIONS
Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Rep.of Congo
DR of Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe
TO SAVE AFRICA REJECT ITS NATIONS
NYT OPED Pierre Englebert professor of African politics at Pomona College, author, most recently, of “Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow.”
...for the past five decades, most Africans have suffered predation of colonial proportions by the very states that were supposed to bring them freedom. And most of these nations, broke from their own thievery, are now unable to provide their citizens with basic services like security, roads, hospitals and schools. What can be done? The first and most urgent task is for the donor countries that keep these nations afloat cease sheltering African elites...the international community must move swiftly to derecognize the worst-performing African states... tell the rulers of places like Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea or Sudan — all nightmares to much of their populations — they no longer recognize them as sovereign states. Instead, they agree to recognize only African states that provide their citizens with a minimum of safety and basic rights.
The logistics of derecognition would no doubt be complicated. Embassies would be withdrawn on both sides. These states would be expelled from the UN and other international organizations. All macroeconomic, budget-supporting and post-conflict reconstruction aid programs would be canceled. NGOs and local charities would continue to receive money....relatively benevolent states like South Africa and a handful of others would go on as before. But in the most troubled countries, politicians would suddenly lose the legal foundations of authority. Some repressive leaders, deprived of sovereign tools of domination and the international aid that underwrites their regimes, might soon find themselves overthrown.
African states that begin to provide their citizens with basic rights and services, that curb violence and commit resources to development projects, would be rewarded with re-recognition by the international community. Aid would return... these states would finally have acquired some degree of popular accountability and domestic legitimacy.
Like any experiment, de- and re-recognition is risky. Some fear it could promote conflict, that warlords would simply seize certain mineral-rich areas and run violent, lawless quasi states. But Africa is already rife with violence, and warlordism is already widespread. While unrecognized countries might still mistreat their people, history shows that weak, isolated regimes have rarely been able to survive without making significant concessions to segments of their populations. For many Africans, 50 years of sovereignty has been an abject failure, reproducing the horrors of colonial-era domination under the guise of freedom. International derecognition of abusive states would be a first step toward real liberation.