HQs in France:
NATO: A short history
It is often said the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was founded in 1949 in response to the threat posed by the Soviet Union. This is only partially true. In fact, the Alliance’s creation was part of a broader effort to serve three purposes: deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration....The aftermath of World War II saw much of Europe devastated in a way that is now difficult to envision...In addition, Communists backed by the Soviet Union were threatening governments across Europe...US-funded Marshall Plan and other means fostered a degree of economic stabilisation. European states still needed confidence in their security...the North Atlantic Treaty was signed on 4 April, 1949...with Article 5, the key to the alliance, new Allies agreed “an armed attack against one or more of them… shall be considered an attack against them all” and that following such an attack, each Ally would take “such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force” in response.... While the signing of the Treaty created Allies, it had not created a military structure that could effectively coordinate their actions. This changed when growing worries about Soviet intentions culminated in the Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb in 1949 and in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. The effect upon the Alliance was dramatic.
NATO soon gained a consolidated command structure with military Headquarters based in the Parisian suburb of Rocquencourt, near Versailles. This was Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) with US General Dwight D. Eisenhower the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, or SACEUR. Soon after, the Allies established a permanent civilian secretariat in Paris...
In March 1966, France announced its intention to withdraw from NATO’s integrated military command structure and requested the removal of all Allied headquarters from French territory...France remained within the Alliance and emphasized its intention to stand together with its Allies in the event of hostilities. France also proved to be among the Alliance’s most valuable force contributors during later peacekeeping operations...
French-American Global Forum - WW2 D Day Forum in Paris
Seventy years following WW2 this major historical event, the Washington D.C. based French-American Forum will land in Paris to organize a three day symposium, to reflect on the path taken by the United States and France since 1944 but also ‒ especially ‒ on the most important transatlantic issues of today...Organized by the French-American Global Forum and its US partners, with the support of the BNF and Slate.Fr, it promises to be one of the most significant gatherings of French and American politicians, decision-makers and intellectuals ever organized in Paris.
AG Eric Holder Resigns
AG Eric Holder to Represent US at Paris Rally Sunday
www.newsmax.com/ Headline/ France-attacks-Charlie-Hebdo-rally/ 2015/ 01/ 10/ id/ 617784/
Attorney General Eric Holder was not at the rally but was in Paris to attend a security summit on combating terrorism. He recorded interviews that aired in the U.S. on Sunday...
investigators are still trying to piece connections between three terror suspects killed Friday and their suspected links to al Qaeda (AQAP) and other terrorist groups...
Holder: US to Host Anti-terror Summit
PMO confirms France opposed Netanyahu’s attendance at Paris rally
1/12/15 1:35am http://www.timesofisrael.com/pmo-confirms-france-opposed-netanyahus-atte...
...According to Channel 2...to avoid any mention of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict at the rally organized as a show of solidarity...Netanyahu initially accepted wish he stay away and Saturday cited security concerns to explain why he would not attend the event....However, the prime minister changed his mind later Saturday after Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman and Economy Minister Naftali Bennett announced they would join the march, Israel’s Channel 2 news reported. When Netanyahu’s office told the Elysee Palace that he would be coming after all, France responded by highlighting that it was extending an invitation to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, according to the report. When it became clear to French President Francois Hollande the Israeli prime minister intended to join the march, he phoned to invite Netanyahu personally, according to the report. Netanyahu was initially in a second row of leaders, but shimmied his way into the front row, alongside Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, Hollande, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, EU Council President Donald Tusk and Abbas.
Je Suis Sarko. France’s far right is making hay from the “Charlie Hebdo” attacks, but it’s Nicolas Sarkozy who’s poised to make a comeback in a country seeking a strong hand
“France has always triumphed against its enemies when she unites around her values. That’s what I am asking you to do now. Unite, in any way you can, said” President François Hollande.Hollande met with leaders of all political parties represented in parliament, including Marine Le Pen, leader of the far-right National Front (FN) party, rarely invited to the Élysée. Former President Nicolas Sarkozy, leader of the center-right Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party, called for unity against barbarity and took part in Sunday’s march a few steps from Hollande... it’s doubtful France will remain united once the dust has settled. Already the cracks are starting to show. “I would not want to jump from national unity to national controversy … but unity should not prevent eyes opening,” said Sarkozy. Le Pen agrees that the time for unity is quickly coming to an end. “[A] debate should start on what was done and what hasn’t been done,” she said Sunday....Sarkozy is likely the only politician who can stop the FN from reaching the final round of the 2017 elections. During Sarkozy’s presidency, from 2007 to 2012, the FN didn’t have a single member of parliament or senator... Clearly, a Sarkozy run government drew voters away from the party to its right, the FN... after France’s most brutal terrorist attack in decades, many are asking serious questions about the future of French society and seeking security and strength....
Israel calls on Jews to leave, France urges them to stay
www.i24news.tv/ en/ news/ international/ 57370-150111-israel-calls-on-jews-to-leave-france-urges-them-to-stay
Netanyahu called on French Jews to move to Israel...Livni said Jews should because they are Zionists...French Prime Minister Manuel Vals expressed all together different sentiments
French Prime Minister: If Jews Flee, the Republic Will Be a Failure
Manuel Valls told me in an interview before the Charlie Hebdo and kosher supermarket massacres, "If 100,000 Jews leave, France will no longer be France"
JEFFREY GOLDBERG JAN 10 2015 *http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/01/french-prime-minister-warns-if-jews-flee-the-republic-will-be-judged-a-failure/384410/Valls declared Saturday that France was now at war with radical Islam, has become a hero to his country’s besieged Jews for speaking bluntly about the threat of Islamist anti-Semitism, a subject often discussed in euphemistic terms by the country’s political and intellectual elite...this new anti-Semitism comes from the difficult neighborhoods, from immigrants from the Middle East and North Africa, who have turned anger about Gaza into something very dangerous. Israel and Palestine are just a pretext... This is radical criticism of the very existence of Israel... Behind anti-Zionism is anti-Semitism.”... His fight as interior minister to ban performances of the anti-Semitic comedian Dieudonne (innovator of the inverted Nazi salute known as the quenelle) endeared him to the country’s Jewish leadership, and he is almost alone on the European left in calling anti-Zionism a form of anti-Semitism.
* ATLANTIC MEDIA http://www.atlanticmedia.com/about/:
BRANDS http://www.atlanticmedia.com/brands/: The Atlantic; Government Executive Media, NextGov; Defense One, The D Brief; National Journal; Wire; Quartz; CityLab
NATO, with all ‘international community organizations’, including the IMF, World Bank, UN, World Health Org., etc., are US dominated vehicles serving its global hegemony agenda:
NATO's Core Function is to Advance US Global Interests and Foreign Policy Goals.
By Dr. Kate Hudson, former chair UK-based Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article31391.htm
NATO's Ordinary Future By Robert D. Kaplan: "Even during the Cold War, NATO was wholly dominated by the U.S”
May 9, 2012 http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/natos-ordinary-future-robert-d-kaplan>
U.S. Mission NATO...under command structure reached peak of 78 headquarters
NATO Command Structure - National Defense University
Redefining the EuroAtlantic Security Agenda: What is the Role for the New NATO Strategic Concept?
NATO Operation Allied Force - United States Department of Defense
Breedlove Assumes Command of NATO and U.S. Eucom
April 22, 2013 http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119837> http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119843
Breedlove currently serves as commander of U.S. Air Forces in Europe, U.S. Air Forces Africa (AFRICOM) and Allied Air Command, and as director of the Joint Air Power Competence Center. Navy Adm. James G. Stavridis winding down after four years as Commander U.S. European Command and Supreme Allied Commander NATO global operations ...
NATO SACT is French Air Force General Jean-Paul Paloméros
Allied Command Transformation (ACT) (Commandement Allié Transformation) is a NATO military command formed in 2003 after North Atlantic Treaty Organisation restructuring. It is intended to lead military transformation of alliance forces and capabilities, using new concepts such as the NATO Response Force and new doctrines in order to improve the alliance's military effectiveness. Since France rejoined the NATO Command Structure mid-2009, a significant change took place where the SACT is now a French officer..
Interview with French Front National Leader Marine Le Pen
SPIEGEL interview French right-wing populist Marine Le Pen discusses the European election victory by her Front National...
Le Pen: The Americans are trying to expand their influence in the world, particularly in Europe. They are defending their own interests, not ours. I am in favor of a multi-polar world in which France once again takes its position as the leader of non-aligned states, not with the US, not with Russia and not with Germany. One should strive to be neither slave nor master.
Part 1: 'I Don't Want this European Soviet Union”, Part 2: 'Xenophobia Is the Hatred of Foreigners. I Don't Hate Anyone'
NATO Intelligence Sharing in the 21st Century
Spring 2013 Columbia School of International and Public Affairs Capstone Research Project
This NATO Capstone project focuses on the national civilian and military intelligence organizations of the following four NATO members: Germany, France, Italy, and Turkey. In addition to describing the historical development, organizational structures, and relationships of these countries’ intelligence enterprises, the project provides a brief overview of their relative strengths and weaknesses with regard to their ability to participate in NATO operations. After establishing the general capabilities and design of each member state’s intelligence apparatus, the project determines what the incentives and obstacles are for each country to share intelligence. By understanding the core competencies of key NATO allies, the U.S. Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community as a whole will be better prepared to plan and execute joint operations.....
Recognizing that no single country can expect to be able to gather and analyze all information all the time, sharing in the global marketplace for intelligence will continue to be a staple of international relations. Given this reality, the key questions to ask include: 1) What kind of intelligence will a country share? 2) How much intelligence will the country share? And 3) Under what circumstances will sharing occur? Based on our interviews with intelligence experts, military to military sharing at the tactical level is more likely than institutionalized sharing at the strategic level. Both formal and informal sharing at the lowest levels of an intelligence enterprise can endure and overcome political difficulties at the geo-strategic levels.
Of the four countries analyzed in this report, we find:
Italy is the most willing to share intelligence, but it may also be the least attractive partner to other nations. Italy’s decreased intelligence budget and shrinking capabilities coupled with its weak cyber security may turn potential partners away from Italy.
Germany may be the most reliable partner because it shares the same strategic priorities with almost all members of the NATO Alliance. Moreover, Germany’s strong commitment to multilateral organizations and international law makes it likely to use sharing as a way to strengthen the credibility of international institutions. Despite this outward commitment, Germany may find its historical and cultural experience prohibitive, as it manifests itself in an extremely rigid and constrictive legal regime that can paralyze intelligence sharing.
Turkey may be the most attractive partner to any country looking to establish a sharing relationship because its intelligence enterprise is playing a more prominent role in Turkish foreign policy. Namely, the intelligence community is developing increased technical intelligence capabilities and is integrating parts of its civilian and military intelligence apparatus, specifically in relation to cyber operations. Unfortunately, Turkey may also be the most difficult to share with because of its relations with Iran, Russia, and China, all of which have opposed certain aspects of the NATO Alliance. Turkey will also be wary of potential partners with strong ties to Greece or Israel.
France seeks to share intelligence to increase its position in the Alliance, in Europe, and to enhance its role on the world stage. Instead of being focused on specific transactional intelligence sharing for other forms of intelligence, France may be most willing to share to gain influence because it sees itself as an elite member of the global community.
Summary for France
French perspective Maintain strength in Europe Protect former colonies, especially West Africa Combat terrorism and Islamic extremism
ISAF member Mali and Côte D’Ivoire Libya intervention and extremism
1 Strategic Priorities
2 Security Environment / Deployed Forces
NATO (Military since 2009) Sharing with Western allies (UK, US)
3 Established Partnerships
Intelligence under Executive Military/Civil separation, but both under MOD Domestic agencies under Interior, Economy Intelligence figures private
4 Governance Models
HUMINT capabilities high, especially in MENA ANSSI tasked with cyber-defense Moderate IMINT capability
Origins from infighting during WWII Public does not trust secret services Intelligence failureLoss of sovereignty
6 Culture / History
2012012 CHINA – USA IN THE 21ST CENTURY: CLASH OR PARTNERSHIP
2The French-American Foundation is supported by the generosity of individuals, corporations, and foundations committed to strengthening the French-American relationship.
The French-American Foundation partnered with the French-American Global Forum and La Maison Française of the French Embassy in Washington, D.C. for discussion on “China – USA in the 21st Century: Clash or Partnership.” Held under the patronage of Consul General of France in Washington, D.C.... moderated by Steven Clemons, Editor-at-large, The Atlantic....
Geoff Dyer, U.S. Foreign Policy Correspondent, Financial Times
Philip Golub, Writer, Contributing Editor at Le Monde diplomatique, and Professor at the American University of Paris
Michael Green, Senior Vice President for Asia and holder of the Japan Chair at CSIS
Deborah Lehr, Director of the Paulson Institute, University of Chicago.
freedom of expression
Israeli soldiers exchange photos of killed Palestinians
11/1/07 Rami Almeghari – IMEMC www.imemc.org/article/51245
About the International Middle East Media Center IMEMC developed in collaboration between Palestinian and International journalists to provide independent media coverage of Israel-Palestine.
Israeli soldiers exchanged photos of killed Palestinians on their cellular phones, the Israeli Daily Ma’areef reported Thursday....
"The photos exchange has become a hobby among the soldiers, in way that would have relieved us as victorious against the terrorists 'Palestinians’", the newspaper quoted one of the soldiers as saying. An Israeli army spokesperson responded saying that the army will start an examination into the case... www.uruknet.info?p=37761
DoD Social Media Hub - United States Department of Defense
Social media is an integral part of Department of Defense operations. : A quick-reference listing of the top DOD Sites, Direct access to the databases of all registered DOD Sites[...]
WHAT SHOULD NATO'S ROLE BE IN 21 C.?
NATO Operation Allied Force - United States Department of Defense
Supreme Allied Commander defines NATO's new global security role
U.S. Air Force Gen. Philip M. Breedlove Assumes U.S. European Command (EUCOM) and Supreme Allied Commander NATO global operations (SACEUR)
Breedlove currently serves as commander of U.S. Air Forces in Europe, U.S. Air Forces Africa and Allied Air Command, and director of the Joint Air Power Competence Center.
April 22, 2013 http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119837> < http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=119843
After my first year as SACEUR, it is clear to me that we are entering a phase of strategic and operational adaptation - shaped by the end of the combat operations in Afghanistan and the rapidly changing global security environment that include ...Russia's aggressive actions in Ukraine, and the violence of ISIL, threaten Europe in new ways and underscore the need for a new model of NATO responsiveness.' One of the key decisions made at the NATO Summit was to implement a rapid response force called the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force – VJTF...spurred by Russian illegal actions, it will be responsive wherever it is needed to include in response to possible threats to the southern area of the Alliance from Middle East and North Africa...one part of a series of adaptation measures approved by Heads of State to enable the Alliance to address this new and in many ways more daunting global security environment...
Although the NATO military structure is making tremendous strides...it is clear that the military instrument alone cannot achieve strategic success. Future strategies must have defined end states which are politically, economically and socially cohesive. The effectiveness and sustainability of these strategies, in the 21st Century Security Environment, must be rooted in operative alliances and institutions invested in synchronized lines of effort...so NATO can effectively respond to emerging threats over what is likely to be an extended period of global instability....
Declassified Docs. including The 1983 War Scare: "The Last Paroxysm" of the Cold War
Obama Seeks $1 Billion To Boost US Military Presence In Europe: NATO Agrees To Bolster Defenses
What is to be done? Putin’s aggression in Ukraine needs a response
by Zbigniew Brzezinski, National Security Adviser to President Carter 1977 to 1981
...Much depends on how clearly it conveys to the dictator in the Kremlin — a partially comical imitation of Mussolini and a more menacing reminder of Hitler — that NATO cannot be passive...