7/4/15 Official North American History Lessons

“iThe Indians have been fighting terrorism since 1492”
more true counterterrorism history @ http://www.burbankdigest.com

Duwamish Tribe denied federal recognition
7/4/15 www.seattletimes.com/ seattle-news/ puget-sound/ ..

US Interior Dept Final Decision letter to Tribal Chairwoman Cecile Hansen
http://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc1-030828.pdf

Duwamish Tribe wins federal recognition
1/20/01 www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=2951
January 19, 2001 the Duwamish Tribe wins federal recognition. ... “tribal status” enied September 2001, in a "notice of final determination

Duwamish Chairwoman Speaks About Fighting for Federal ...
5/28/13 www.indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/ 2013/ 03.... Duwamish Tribe were denied federal recognition in 2001...the whole point of us getting into this process.

The Dkhw’Duw’Absh
http://www.duwamishtribe.org/culture.html
The people known today as the Duwamish Tribe are the Dkhw’Duw’Absh, "The People of the Inside". We are the people of Chief Seattle. We are the First People of the City of Seattle, Mercer Island, Renton, Bellevue, Tukwila and much of King County, Washington. We have never left our ancestral homeland. We are bringing the strengths of our Native Nation, our culture, our teachings, and our Native values with us into the 21st Century.
The name "Duwamish" is an Anglicization of Dkhw’Duw’Absh. In the Puget Sound Salish language Lushootseed, Dkhw’Duw’Absh means "The People of the Inside". This name refers to Elliott Bay, the Duwamish River, and the other rivers, lakes, and waterways that connect our Dkhw’Duw’Absh ancestral homeland.
As the First People of this area, the Dkhw’Duw’Absh witnessed geologic events in Puget Sound during the last Ice Age. Events recounted in the extensive oral history of the Dkhw’Duw’Absh have been confirmed by scientific discoveries. In 1979, an archeological excavation in the Dkhw’Duw’Absh ancestral homeland unearthed artifact fragments that were radiocarbon-dated to the Sixth Century AD, attesting to the antiquity of their tenure in this area.
Traditionally, the Dkhw’Duw’Absh hunted deer, elk, bear, and other game animals, ducks, geese, and other waterfowl, fished for salmon, cod, halibut, and other fish, harvested clams and other seafood's, and gathered berries, camas, and other plants for food and medicinal purposes. Bays, rivers, lakes, and well-established trails were the pathways to these vital resources as each came into its season for harvesting.
In 1851, when the first European-Americans arrived at Alki Point, the Dkhw’Duw’Absh occupied at least 17 villages, living in over 90 longhouses, along Elliott Bay, the Duwamish River, the Cedar River, the Black River (which no longer exists), Lake Washington, Lake Union, and Lake Sammamish.

The Point Elliott Treaty of 1855
http://www.duwamishtribe.org/elliottreaty.html
On January 22, 1855, near Mukilteo, among the signers of the Point Elliott Treaty, the Duwamish Tribe was listed first. Chief Si'ahl's name was placed at the very top of the treaty, reflecting his personal importance and that of his tribes. The Duwamish signers of the Point Elliott Treaty were Chief Si'ahl, and the Duwamish "sub-chiefs" Ts'huahntl, Now-a-chais, Ha-seh-doo-an.
The 1855 Treaty created a Government-to-Government relationship between the United States and the Dkhw’Duw’Absh. The United States Senate ratified the Point Elliott Treaty in 1859. The Point Elliott Treaty guaranteed hunting and fishing rights and reservations to all Tribes represented by the Native signers.
In return for the reservation and other benefits promised in the treaty by the United States government, the Duwamish Tribe exchanged over 54,000 acres of their homeland. Today those 54,000 acres include the cities of Seattle, Renton, Tukwila, Bellevue, and Mercer Island, and much of King County.
European-American immigrants soon violated the Point Elliott Treaty of 1855, triggering a series of Native rebellions from 1855 to 1858 known as "the Indian War". Instigated by the European-Americans, this war set tribe against tribe, and brother against brother.

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OFFICIAL HISTORY

THE PRICE OF FREEDOM AMERICANS AT WAR
SMITHSONIAN LEARNING RESOURCES
www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/
Select a Conflict

...The Reservation
1866-1890, after the Civil War, thousands of Americans poured into the Great Plains on a collision course with western Indian tribes. Homesteaders, ranchers, and miners encroached on Indian lands and threatened native game and ways of life. They called on the U.S. Army to crush Indian resistance and confine tribes to government-controlled reservations...

By 1890, the army had defeated armed resistance and resettled Indians on government-controlled reservations. Many reservation Indians were reduced to a subsistence life, dependent on the federal government for food and supplies. They used tickets to claim their rations. In the late 19th century, federal policy changed from supporting separate Indian reservations to accelerating assimilation.
=(some major battles)=
The U.S. government wanted Indians to learn skills and attitudes deemed necessary for successful American citizenship. Indian children, seen as the key to assimilation, were forcibly taken from their homes and sent to school. In 1887, the government instituted the Dawes Act to accelerate assimilation by dissolving the reservations and allotting land to individual Indians. Most tribes resisted, refusing to give up their culture and unique ways of life. As part of the policy to integrate Indians into the general population, many children were removed from the reservation and sent to Indian schools. There they were to learn fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic, and also new social attitudes that would make them successful “Americans.”
In 1889 the federal government opened unassigned lands in the Oklahoma Territory reserved for Indians, to white settlement, triggering a massive land grab.

SMITHSONIAN LEARNING RESOURCES
www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/
http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/resources/education.asp

THE PRICE OF FREEDOM AMERICANS AT WAR
Americans have gone to war to win their independence, expand their national boundaries, define their freedoms, and defend their interests around the globe. This exhibition examines how wars shaped the nation’s history and transformed America. It highlights the service and sacrifice of generations of American men and women.
Select a Conflict
War of Independence
War of 1812
Eastern Indian Wars
Mexican War
Civil War
Western Indian Wars
Spanish American War
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Cold War
Vietnam
New American Roles
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the cold war in 1989, the United States stood alone as a military superpower. Americans struggled to define the roles they should play in the community of nations and fought to defend their interests against threats at home as well as abroad.

Gulf War, 1991

September 11, 2001
..Stunning attacks in the United States by al Qaeda international Islamist terrorist group, killed nearly 3,000 people and launched an American-led war on terrorism...
War in Afghanistan, 2001
...The United States launched global war against terrorism in Afghanistan, “Operation Enduring Freedom,” using diplomacy, intelligence analysis, law enforcement, monetary curbs, and military force...As the United States launched its attacks in Afghanistan, it began a massive humanitarian relief operation...Troops were deployed to help Afghans build and rebuild schools and housing.

War in Iraq, 2003
In 2003, America’s role as sole superpower was once again tested—in Iraq, the heart of the Middle East. The U.S. led “Operation Iraqi Freedom” overthrew Saddam Hussein’s brutal regime in Iraq...The Defense Department controlled media coverage of the war. In response to criticism that journalists had been excluded from on-the-scene coverage of the Gulf War, the U.S. military embedded selected journalists with fighting units...[who] broadcast live reports to a global audience....after
“major combat operations” ended on May1 2003, as American and Iraqi authorities struggled to establish an interim government U.S. and coalition forces faced civil unrest and an anti-occupation insurgency. Hundreds more U.S. troops were killed and wounded.[...]