Transmission of Zika Virus by Aedes Mosquitoes
Zika virus transmission by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.
Digest note: aedes aegypti mosquito BIOCHEM WAEFARE BACKGROUND:
United States Army Chemical Corps (U) Fiscal Year 1959 January 1960
U. S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Office Army Chemical Center, Maryland
https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16006843-5BAfk6/16006843.pdf 260003 RCC1.950228.006
UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY OF MAJOR EVENTS and PROBLEMS (excerpt}
...Yellow Fever (C)
In 1953 the Biological Warfare Laboratories at Fort Detrick established a program to study the use of arthropods for spreading anti- personnel BW agents. The advantages of arthropods as Bh' carriers are these: they inject the agent directly into the body, so a mask is no protection to a soldier, and they remain alive for some time, keeping an area constantly dangerous.
(C) One of the insects picked for the study was the aedes aegypti mosquito, the carrier of yellow fever virus. This species is widely distributed between latitudes 40°N and 40's. In the United States it occurs as far north as Norfolk, Virginia, but cannot survive the winters north of this latitude. The mosquito favors human habitations as breeding places. The female mosquito sucks blood from animals or humans, but seems to prefer humans. It takes its first meal two days after emerging from the larval stage and seeks blood again at intervals of about three days, While probing for blood the mosquito transmits yellow fever virus to the unknowing victim.
(U) Yellow fever is a highly dangerous disease. A person begins to show symptoms of the fever from two to ten days ( average three days) after being bitten by the mosquito. The fever appears suddenly causing headache, high temperatures, rigor, vomiting, and even prostration. If the disease is fatal, death usually comes on the sixth or seventh day. If the patient recovers, he is weak for a period of from two weeks to two months. There is no known therapy for yellow fever, other than symptomatic, and in severe cases the patient has a poor chance of recovering. Of the clinical cases since 1900, one-third of the patients have died.
(U) Every few years an epidemic occurs somewhere, primarily in Africa and the Americas, occasionally in Europe. Yellow fever has never.occurred in some areas including Asia, and therefore it is probable the population of the U.S.S.R. would be quite susceptible to the disease..
( S ) If military attack were made with Aedes aeqvDti mosquitos it would be quite difficult to detect the fact, particularly if this type of mosquito ordinarily lived in the area. While there is a possibility a trained entomologist might realize an attack had taken place, it would be unlikely. And even if an attack were suspected, it could not be confirmed until symptoms of the disease broke out, which would take two or more days. There is a yellow fever vaccine that has proven an effective prophylactic, but it would be impossible for a nation such as the U.S.S.R. to quickly undertake a mass-immunization program to protect millions of people. The difficulties an enemy would face in detecting infected mosquitoes and protecting their population would make the (Aedes aegypti) && aeqvpti - yellow fever combination an extremely effective Bw agent-
(C) The Chemical Corps tested the practicality of employing Aedes aewDti mosquitoes to carry a W agent i n several ways. In April - Novem-
ber 1956 t h e Corps ran t r i a l s i n Savannah, Georgia, by releasing uninfected female mosquitoes in a residential area, and then, with co-operation of people in the neighborhood, estimating how many mosquitoes entered houses and b i t people. Also i n 1956 t h e Corps released 600,000 uninfected mosquitoes from a plane at Avon Park Bombing Range, Florida. Within a day the mosquitoes had spread between one and two miles and bitten many people. In 1958 further tests at Avon Park AFB, Florida, showed mosquitoes easily disseminated from helicopters, would spread more than a mile in each direction and enter a l l types of buildings. These tests showed mosquitoes could be spread over areas of several square miles by means of devices dropped from planes or set up on the ground, And while these tests were made with uninfected mosquitoes, it is a fairly safe assumption infected mosquitoes could be spread equally well 165 (C)Aedes aeavoti mosquitoes were produced i n the laboratory by the
following method. A colony of 6,000 to l0,CeOO adult mosquitoes were confined in a cage fed on sugar syrup and blood.....
Fort Detrick laboratories were capable of producing a half million mosquitoes a month, and the Engineering Command designed a plant capable of producing130 million mosquitoes a month.
(C)The yellow fever virus employed by Fort Detrick came in human serum obtained from a person in Trinidad who had been infected with the disease in the epidemic of 1954. Scientists inoculated Rhesus monkeys with the serum, and thus propgated the virus. Approximately 100 ml of plasma containing virus were obtained from a monkey. Fort Detrick found that infected monkey serum would maintain its virulence for at least two years.167
(S)Aedes aeavpti mosquitoes were infected with yellow fever virus by taking larvae, 3 or 4 days old, and immersing them in infectious Rhesus monkey plasma. The infected larvae were reared in the same manner as uninfected larvae. The virulence of infected mosquitoes was tested by allowing them to bite and infect Swiss mice.
During their life the mosquitoes laid hundreds of thousands of eggs on moist paper towels which could be kept several months under proper temperature and humidity, hatched in water, the larvae reared in trays turned into adult mosquitoes one to two weeks later.
(S) Chemical Corps Technical Committee classified the yellow fever virus -Aedes aeavDti mosquito as a standard type in June 1959.
digest direct and geopolitical links:
'Swine Flu' short-course and update http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/236
H1N1 Links: Political, Medical, Military Chronology http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/238
AIDS/HIV http://burbankdigest.com/node/519 (brief reconstruction of missing original}
H1Ni and other Flu Pandemics www.burbankdigest.com/node/478
Behind the US "ISIS" Crisis: http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/500
Ebola: p1 http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/516 p2 http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/517 p3 http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/518
ZIKA: THE BIG PICTURE http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/567
Restructuring the World by any means necessary http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/469
US Counter-Revolutionary Genocide 2016 http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/535, http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/537
ISIS and the New World Order http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/561
KATRINA Genocide Continues 6 Years Later http://www.burbankdigest.com/node/365